Rokok dan Gula -
5 years ago
Because of this enormous diversity of reference, it is not very useful to study nouns solely in terms of their meaning. It is much more fruitful to consider them from the point of view of their formal characteristics.
Characteristics of Nouns
Many nouns can be recognised by their endings. Typical noun endings include:
Most nouns have distinctive SINGULAR and PLURAL forms. The plural of regular nouns is formed by adding -s to the singular:
However, there are many irregular nouns which do not form the plural in this way:
We can recognise many nouns because they often have the, a, or anin front of them:
These words are called determiners, which is the next word class we will look at.
the boy's pen
If the noun already has an -s ending to mark the plural, then the genitive marker appears only as an apostrophe after the plural form:
the boys' pens
The genitive marker should not be confused with the 's form of contracted verbs, as in John's a good boy (= John is a good boy).
Nouns often co-occur without a genitive marker between them:
We will look at these in more detail later, when we discuss noun phrases.
Common and Proper Nouns
Nouns which name specific people or places are known as PROPER NOUNS.
Many names consist of more than one word:
Proper nouns may also refer to times or to dates in the calendar:
January, February, Monday, Tuesday, Christmas, Thanksgiving
All other nouns are COMMON NOUNS.
Since proper nouns usually refer to something or someone unique, they do not normally take plurals. However, they may do so, especially when number is being specifically referred to:
there are three Davids in my class
For the same reason, names of people and places are not normally preceded by determiners the or a/an, though they can be in certain circumstances:
it's nothing like the America I remember