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Sunday, May 27, 2012

Adat Resam Kaum Sikh


Aspek 1 : Adat Resam Kaum Sikh

Adat resam merupakan satu perkara atau isu penting apabila kita ingin mengambarkan mengenai sesuatu kaum Setiap kaum atau etnik mempunyai adat resam mereka yang tersendiri, di mana kebanyakannya hampir sama dengan kaum yang lain, dan ada juga yang mempunyai keistimewaan mereka sendiri.
Begitu juga dengan kaum Sikh. Seperi yang kita semua maklum, komuniti atau jumlah masyarakat Sikh di Malaysia tidaklah sebesar jumlahnya seperti kaum-kaum utama yang lain seperti kaum Melayu, India dan Cina. Namun, kewujudan mereka dapat dirasai oleh kerana adat resam mereka yang unik dan menonjolkan keistimewaan kaum mereka.
Adat ialah kebiasaan, manakala resam ialah lembaga, peraturan, hukum atau norma yang dijunjung oleh kelompok masyarakat. Selain itu, adat resam merupakan peraturan yang telah diamalkan sejak turun-temurun dalam sesebuah masyarakat sehingga menjadi hukum dan peraturan yang harus dipatuhi. (Noriati A.Rashid, Budaya dan pembelajaran, 2011).
Sama seperti kaum-kaum yang lain, kaum Sikh juga mempunyai pegangan adat resam mereka yang tersendiri. Kita akan melihat satu persatu adat resam yang diwarisi secara turun temurun oleh kaum Sikh melalui beberapa aspek dan kategori.
Antara aspek yang paling unik dalam budaya kaum Sikh tentulah pada pakaiannya iaitu serban bagi lelaki dan baju Punjabi bagi wanita. Pemakaian serban juga ada beberapa jenis ikatan dan menggunakan pelbagai warna. Melihat kepada cara mengikat serban, dapat dibayangkan betapa sukarnya untuk mereka yang tidak mahir menggunakannya kerana kain serban itu sebenarnya sangat panjang untuk melingkari keseluruhan kepala.
Wanita pula kelihatan ayu dengan selendang di kepala dan baju Punjabi labuh dengan seluar mengikut bentuk kaki. Corak latar yang digunakan pada pakaian mereka juga tidak keterlaluan dengan warna terang menambahkan kecantikan wanita Sikh yang terkenal dengan hidung mancung. 
Pakaian Punjabi juga digunakan khusus untuk majlis perkahwinan tetapi dengan reka corak lebih menarik iaitu dipenuhi sulaman manik dan benang emas. Itulah antara kemahiran unik orang Punjabi kerana mereka terkenal dalam aktiviti menyulam kain dan sulaman mereka juga berkualiti tinggi. 
Aspek kedua ialah dari segi perkahwinan. Dalam agama Sikh, perkahwinan atau anand karaj dianggap suci. Penganut Sikh dimestikan berkahwin kerana perkahwinan adalah penyatuan dua roh menjadi satu. Penyatuan mi disamakan dengan penyatuan antara manusia dengan Tuhan, iaitu satu matlamat penting dalam kehidupan setiap penganut Sikh. Sistem perkahwinan orang Sikh adalah monogami.
Perkahwinan dalam masyarakat Sikh penting, malah dimestikan kerana cara hidup berkeluarga atau grihasth asram adalah cara hidup yang paling utama dan semula jadi sifatnya. Perkahwinan antara individu yang mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan atau endogami dilarang atau tidak digalakkan. Oleh itu, pemilihan menantu biasanya dibuat oleh ibu bapa masing-masing.
 Mengikut adat perkahwinan kaum Sikh, pihak wanita akan mengeluarkan belanja yang banyak, bukan setakat membayar dowri tetapi juga keluarga pengantin perempuan perlu menyediakan cincin emas, bukan untuk pengantin saja tetapi juga untuk ibu bapa pengantin lelaki.
Itu belum lagi dikira perbelanjaan lain untuk membeli kelengkapan rumah kerana menjadi kebiasaan, keluarga pengantin perempuan juga perlu menyediakan set bilik tidur, set sofa dan barang dapur untuk melengkapi rumah pengantin. Ia pastinya memerlukan belanja besar dan ia ditanggung keluarga pengantin perempuan.
Sama juga dengan proses meminang atau pemilihan jodoh. Ia bermula dari pihak perempuan yang mesti memulakannya dulu. Pendek kata, jika dalam konsep orang Melayu, umpama perigi mencari timba tetapi ia adalah adat yang diteruskan dalam masyarakat Sikh di mana perempuan yang meminang lelaki.
Aspek yang ketiga ialah ketika mengandung atau kelahiran. Terdapat pelbagai adat resam serta kepercayaan yang masih diwarisi oleh kaum Sikh apabila seorang wanita itu mengandung dan selepas kelahiran bayi. Antara kepercayaan yang paling masyur ialah seorang ibu mengandung tidak dibenarkan untuk makan buah yang bekembar kerana dikhuatiri boleh menyebabkan mendapat anak kembar. Bukanlah satu larangan dalam kaum Sikh untuk mendapat anak kembar, tetapi kelahiran anak kembar besar kemungkinan akan mendatangkan beban bagi sesetengah keluarga, terutamnya keluarga yang susah.
Seorang ibu yang mengandung juga tidak boleh memegang benda tajam seperti pisau atau gunting dan tidak boleh memotong apa-apa ketika gerhana matahari. Ini kerana boleh menyebabkan anak yang lahir dalam keadaan calar balar di muka dan tidak cantik. Selain itu, ada juga persamaan adat resam kaum Sikh dengan Melayu iaitu sekiranya isteri mengidam sesuatu, suami perlu cuba untuk dapatkan kerana dikhuatiri, boleh menyebabkan anak yang lahir akan terkena tulah seperti meleleh air liurnya.
Selepas kelahiran pula, mengikut kepercayaan kaum Sikh, sekiranya anak itu tidak berhenti menangis, keluarganya perlu ke tempat uri ditanam dan dipukul tanah itu untuk menghentikan tangisan. Apabila meraikan hari lahir pula, tidak boleh diraikan sebelum tarikh lahirnya, mesti disambut selepas atau pada hari lahirnya kerana ia boleh menyebabkan pendek umur.

Aspek yang seterusnya ialah kesenian dan tarian. Kaum Sikh mempunyai pelbagai jenis tarian dan permainan muzik selain turut gemar dalam aktiviti permainan tradisional tetapi kebanyakannya dalam bentuk menguji kekuatan.
Kebanyakan alat muzik yang digunakan dalam masyarakat Sikh secara asasnya seperti muzik Punjabi. Ia menggunakan banyak alat ketukan iaitu gendang atau rebana yang dikenali sebagai jorri (tabla). Waja (piano kecil) dan tabla adalah dua alat muzik terpenting dalam masyarakat ini. Muzik Punjabi berirama rancak dan sarat dengan emosi. Ia menceritakan pelbagai variasi perasaan seperti kegembiraan, keceriaan, kesakitan dan semangat mendalam. Begitu juga dengan lagunya yang turut mempunyai melodi penuh emosi dan perasaan. 
Selalunya, apabila kita melihat tarian di filem Hindi, ramai akan mengaitkannya dengan bhangra dan realitinya, itulah ‘Raja Tarian’ dalam masyarakat Sikh kerana sehingga kini ia antara satu daripada tarian yang masih digunakan secara meluas, malah sudah ada yang memodenkan gaya tarian dan irama lagunya seperti yang digerakkan kumpulan muzik popular kaum Sikh, Goldkartz. 

Bhangra yang membabitkan ramai penari lelaki dan wanita, kebiasaannya melebihi enam orang, menggunakan pakaian berlainan warna untuk menaikkan seri dalam rentak tarian itu memerlukan tenaga tinggi penarinya kerana pergerakannya sangat pantas dan lincah. 
Jika orang Melayu terkenal dengan joget lambak ketika majlis perkahwinan, begitu juga konsepnya dalam masyarakat Sikh yang menjadikan bhangra sebagai tarian bebas yang boleh disertai sesiapa saja apatah lagi tarian itu sendiri tidak mengehadkan pergerakan tertentu dan penarinya bebas melakukan aksi mengikut alunan dhol (gendang atau rebana). 
Berdasarkan semua aspek yang telah diterangkan, kita dapat lihat keunikan dan keistimewaan yang terdapat dalam adat resam kaum Sikh. Terdapat banyak lagi adat-adat resam yang lain yang sebahagiannya masih lagi diamalkan sehingga sekarang dan ada juga sebahagiannya sudah dilupakan oleh kerana arus pemodenan.
Kesimpulannya, adat resam merupakan satu lambang kebanggaan dan satu symbol identiti yang masih lagi dan perlu dipertahankan untuk diturunkan kepada generasi-generasi yang akan datang.








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